英文写作最常见的10个错误

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英文写作最常见的10个错误。前面说过撰写英语论文中国作者的常出现的一些错误。其实不仅中国作者,即使母语为英语的人群中在英文写作中也常会出现错误。本文就其中英文写作最常见的10个错误以实例的形式说明错误出现的原因和如何避免这些错误。

英文写作最常见的10个错误

句子表达不完整

英文写作最常见的10个错误中最常见的就是句子表达不完整。一个完整的英语句子最起码应该包含一个主语和一个动词,这才能称为一个完整的句子。而句子表达不完整中最常见的又是没有主词或者动词。例如

Through the door.
In the other room.
Over there.

上面这些句子在英语口语中可以使用,但是在论文写作时就不正确了。

句子表达不完整有时还是因为从属子句没有使用独立分句。从属连词应该紧跟从属子句。也就是说如果使用使用从句以一个单词如because, though, if等单词开头的话,应该紧跟一个独立分句。这种错误常发生在回答问题时。例如:

Because Tom is the boss.
Since he left work early without permission.

上面这两句话可能是回答问题「Why did he lose his job?」正确的表达应该是如下表达方式。

He lost his job because Tom is the boss.
He lost his job since he left work early without permission.

从句导致的不完整的句子还有以下例子

Even though he needs help.
If they study enough.
As they had invested in the company.

不间断句子

不间断句子指以下句子表达方式

1. 上下文之间没有连接语或者连接词

例如:

The students did well on the test they didn't study very much.
Anna needs a new car she spent the weekend visiting car dealerships.

其实上面的第一个句子在两个独立分句之间缺少连接词,如「but」或者「yet」,或者从属连词,如「although」或者「though」。

第二个句子缺少连接词「so」或者从属连词「since」、「 as」或者「 because」。

上面两句正确的表达应该是

The students did well, yet they didn't study very much.
Anna spent the weekend visiting car dealerships since she needs a new car.

2. 使用太多的子句而不是使用连接语

使用太多的子句常发生在使用「and」时,如

We went to the store and bought some fruit, and we went to the mall to get some clothes, and we had lunch at McDonald's, and we visited some friends.

连续的名子之间应该避免使用「and」,一般来讲,不要使用3个以上的句子,如果使用3个以上的句子,句子就变得冗长。

主语重复

有时写作时可能会使用代词作为重复主语。一个句子只能有一个主语。例如:

Tom, he lives in Lost Angeles.

正确的表达应该是

Tom lives in Los Angeles.

再如:

The students they come from Vietnam.

正确的表达应该是

The students come from Vietnam.

时态不当

时态使用不当是最常见的错误之一。时态的选择应该根据发生的时间,也就是说当说话时这个动作发生在何时,如果是过去就是过去时,现在发生时就是现在时或者现在进行时。

They fly to visit their parents in Toronto last week.
Alex bought a new car and drives it to her home in Los Angeles.

上面第一个句子应该是过去时。第二个句子第一个动词时态使用正确,可是第二个动词「drives」就时态使用不当了。

动词形式不当

当两个动词一起使用时最常发生动词形式使用不当的错误,尤其是动词不定式。而且当使用动词作为名词时,动词应该是动名词的形式。例如:

He hopes finding a new job.

正确表达应该是

He hopes to find a new job.

再如:

Peter avoided to invest in the project.

正确表达应该是

Peter avoided investing in the project.

平行动词使用不当

当使用一组动词时应该使用平行动词形式。如果使用现在时行时,动词应该全部是现在进行时,如果使用过去时,动词应该全部是过去时。例如

She enjoys watching TV, play tennis, and cook.

正确表达应该是

She enjoys watching TV, playing tennis, and cooking.

再如:

I've lived in Italy, working in Germany and study in New York.

正确表达应该是

I've lived in Italy, worked in Germany, and studied in New York.

时间分句使用不当

时间分句应该紧跟诸如「when」、「before」和「after」等词。当表达时如果是现在时或者将来时,应该使用现在时的时间分句。如果是过去时,应该使用过去时时间分句。例如

We'll visit you when we will come next week.

正确表达应该是

We'll visit you when we come next week.

再如:

She cooked dinner after he was arriving.

正确表达应该是

She cooked dinner after he arrived.

主谓语应一致

另外一个常见错误是主谓语不一致。例如:

Tom play guitar in a band.

正确表达应该是

Tom plays guitar in a band.

再如:

They was sleeping when she telephoned.

正确表达应该是

They were sleeping when she telephoned.

代词不一致

当使用代词替代名词时易发生代词不一致的问题。最常发生的错误是使用单数替代复数。例如:

Tom works at a company in Hamburg. She loves his job.

正确表达应该是

Tom works at a company in Hamburg. He loves his job.

再如:

Andrea and Peter studied Russian at school. He thought they were very difficult.

正确表达应该是

Andrea and Peter studied Russian at school. They thought it was very difficult.

链接语言之后缺少逗号

当使用介绍性词组或者片语作为连接语言时,后面应该跟一个逗号。例如:

As a result children should start studying math as early as possible.

正确表达应该是

As a result, children should start studying math as early as possible.

这篇文章翻译的我真痛苦,因为我本身就是一个语法盲,对于专业性词汇不清楚,因此贴上原文,希望专家拍砖。

Some mistakes are common when writing sentences in English. Each of these 10 common sentence mistakes provides correction information as well as links to more detailed information.

Incomplete Sentence - Sentence Fragment

One common mistake many students make is the use of incomplete sentences. Each sentence in English must contain at least a subject and a verb, and should be an independent clause. Examples of incomplete sentences without a subject or a verb might include an instruction or a prepositional phrase. For example:

Through the door.
In the other room.
Over there.

These are phrases we may use in spoken English, but that should not be used in written English as they are incomplete.

Sentence fragments caused by dependent clauses used without an independent clause are more common. Remember that subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses. In other words, if you use a subordinating clause beginning with a word such as 'because, though, if, etc.' there must be an independent clause to complete the thought. This mistake is often made on tests asking a question with 'Why'.

For example, the sentences:

Because Tom is the boss.
Since he left work early without permission.

might answer the question: "Why did he lose his job?" However, these are sentence fragments. The correct answer would be:

He lost his job because Tom is the boss.
He lost his job since he left work early without permission.

Other examples of incomplete sentences introduced by subordinating clauses include:

Even though he needs help.
If they study enough.
As they had invested in the company.

Run-on Sentences

Run-on sentences are sentences that:

1) are not connected by appropriate linking language such as conjunctions
2) use too many clauses rather than using periods and linking language such as conjunctive adverbs

The first type leaves out a word - usually a conjunction - that is required to connect a dependent and independent clause. For example:

The students did well on the test they didn't study very much.
Anna needs a new car she spent the weekend visiting car dealerships.

The first sentence should use either a conjunction 'but', or 'yet' or a subordinating conjunction 'although, even though, or though' to connect the sentence. In the second sentence, the conjunction 'so' or the subordinating conjunction 'since, as, or because' would connect the two clauses.

The students did well, yet they didn't study very much.
Anna spent the weekend visiting car dealerships since she needs a new car.

Another common run on sentence occurs when using too many clauses. This often occurs using the word 'and'.

We went to the store and bought some fruit, and we went to the mall to get some clothes, and we had lunch at McDonald's, and we visited some friends.

The continuous chain of clauses using 'and' should be avoided. In general, do not write sentences that contain more than three clauses to ensure that your sentences do not become run-on sentences.

Duplicate Subjects

Sometimes students use a pronoun as a duplicate subject. Remember that each clause takes only one sentence. If you have mentioned the subject of a sentence by name, there is no need to repeat with a pronoun.

Example 1:

Tom lives in Los Angeles.

NOT

Tom, he lives in Lost Angeles.

Example 2:

The students come from Vietnam.

NOT

The students they come from Vietnam.

Incorrect Tense

Tense usage is a common mistake in student writing. Make sure that the tense used corresponds to the situation. In other words, if you are speaking about something that happened in the past do not use include a tense that refers to the present. For example:

They fly to visit their parents in Toronto last week.
Alex bought a new car and drives it to her home in Los Angeles.

Incorrect Verb Form

Another common mistake is the use of an incorrect verb form when combining with another verb. Certain verbs in English take the infinitive and others take the gerund (ing form). It's important to learn these verb combinations. Also, when using the verb as a noun, use the gerund form of the verb.

He hopes finding a new job. / Correct -> He hopes to find a new job.
Peter avoided to invest in the project. / Correct -> Peter avoided investing in the project.

Parallel Verb Form

A related issue is the use of parallel verb forms when using a list of verbs. If you are writing in the present continuous tense, use the 'ing' form in your list. If you are using the present perfect, use the past participle, etc.

She enjoys watching TV, play tennis, and cook. / Correct -> She enjoys watching TV, playing tennis, and cooking.
I've lived in Italy, working in Germany and study in New York. / Correct -> I've lived in Italy, worked in Germany, and studied in New York.

Use of Time Clauses

Time clauses are introduced by the time words 'when', 'before', 'after' and so on. When speaking about the present or future use the present simple tense in time clauses. If using a past tense, we usually use the past simple in a time clause.

We'll visit you when we will come next week. / Correct -> We'll visit you when we come next week.
She cooked dinner after he was arriving. / Correct -> She cooked dinner after he arrived.

Subject - Verb Agreement

Another common mistake is to use incorrect subject - verb agreement. The most common of these mistakes is the missing 's' in the present simple tense. However, there are other types of mistakes. Always look for these mistakes in the helping verb.

Tom play guitar in a band. / Correct -> Tom plays guitar in a band.
They was sleeping when she telephoned. / Correct -> They were sleeping when she telephoned.

Pronoun Agreement

Pronoun agreement mistakes take place when using a pronoun to replace a proper noun. Often this mistake is a mistake of use of a singular form rather than a plural or vice versa. However, pronoun agreement mistakes can occur in object or possessive pronouns, as well as in subject pronouns.

Tom works at a company in Hamburg. She loves his job. / Correct -> Tom works at a company in Hamburg. He loves his job.
Andrea and Peter studied Russian at school. He thought they were very difficult. Correct -> Andrea and Peter studied Russian at school. They thought it was very difficult.

Missing Commas After Linking Language

When using an introductory phrase as linking language such as a conjunctive adverb or sequencing word, use a comma after the phrase to continue the sentence.

As a result children should start studying math as early as possible. / Correct -> As a result, children should start studying math as early as possible.

本文转载于10 Common Sentence Mistakes in English

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