JAMA publishes Original Investigations, Reviews, Brief Reports, Special Communications, Viewpoints, and other categories of articles. Topics of interest include all subjects that relate to the practice of medicine and the betterment of public health worldwide. The most frequently published types of articles are described herein.
These reports typically include randomized trials (see Clinical Trial), intervention studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, other observational studies, surveys with high response rates (see Survey Research), cost-effectiveness analyses and decision analyses (see Reports of Cost-effectiveness Analyses and Decision Analyses), and studies of screening and diagnostic tests (see also Reports of Diagnostic Tests). Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria and/or participation or response rates, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a comment section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions. Data included in research reports must be original and should be as timely and current as possible (see Timeliness of Data). A structured abstract is required; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts. Maximum length: 3000 words of text (not including abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material) with no more than a total of 5 tables and/or figures.
该部分稿件应该是结构式格式，摘要部分包括Importance, Objective, Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention(s) for clinical trials or Exposure(s) for observational studie, Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s), Results, Conclusions and Relevance几个部分。文章最多不能超过3000字（不包括摘要、表格和参考文献，以及仅在线发表部分），表格和图不能超过5个。
Importance: The abstract should begin with a sentence or 2 explaining the clinical (or other) importance of the study question.
Objective: State the precise objective or study question addressed in the report (eg, “To determine whether…”). If more than 1 objective is addressed, the main objective should be indicated and only key secondary objectives stated. If an a priori hypothesis was tested, it should be stated.
Design: Describe the basic design of the study. State the years of the study and the duration of follow-up. If applicable, include the name of the study (eg, the Framingham Heart Study). As relevant, indicate whether observers were blinded to patient groupings, particularly for subjective measurements.
Setting: Describe the study setting to assist readers to determine the applicability of the report to other circumstances, for example, general community, a primary care or referral center, private or institutional practice, or ambulatory or hospitalized care.
Participants: State the clinical disorders, important eligibility criteria, and key sociodemographic features of patients. The numbers of participants and how they were selected should be provided (see below), including the number of otherwise eligible individuals who were approached but refused. If matching is used for comparison groups, characteristics that are matched should be specified. In follow-up studies, the proportion of participants who completed the study must be indicated. In intervention studies, the number of patients withdrawn because of adverse effects should be given. For selection procedures, these terms should be used, if appropriate: random sample (where random refers to a formal, randomized selection in which all eligible individuals have a fixed and usually equal chance of selection); population-based sample; referred sample; consecutive sample; volunteer sample; convenience sample.
Note: the preceding 3 sections are usually combined for accepted papers during the editing process as “Design, Setting, and Participants,” but for manuscript submission these sections should be kept separate.
Intervention(s) for clinical trials or Exposure(s) for observational studies: The essential features of any interventions, or exposures, should be described, including their method and duration. The intervention, or exposure, should be named by its most common clinical name, and nonproprietary drug names should be used.
Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Indicate the primary study outcome measurement(s) as planned before data collection began. If the manuscript does not report the main planned outcomes of a study, this fact should be stated and the reason indicated. State clearly if the hypothesis being tested was formulated during or after data collection. Explain outcomes or measurements unfamiliar to a general medical readership.
Results: The main outcomes of the study should be reported and quantified, including baseline characteristics and final included/analyzed sample. Include absolute numbers and measures of absolute risks (such as increase/decrease or absolute differences between groups), along with confidence intervals (for example, 95%) or P values. Approaches such as number needed to treat to achieve a unit of benefit may be included when appropriate. Measures of relative risk also may be reported (eg, relative risk, hazard ratios) and should include confidence intervals. Studies of screening and diagnostic tests should report sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio. If predictive value or accuracy is reported, prevalence or pretest likelihood should be given as well. All randomized controlled trials should include the results of intention-to-treat analysis, and all surveys should include response rates.
Conclusions and Relevance: Provide only conclusions of the study that are directly supported by the results. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit. Also, provide a statement of relevance indicating implications for clinical practice or health policy, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. The relevance statement may also indicate whether additional study is required before the information should be used in clinical settings.
The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome. Interventions include but are not limited to drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, and the like. All manuscripts reporting clinical trials must include a copy of the trial protocol including the complete statistical analysis plan (see Protocols), a flow diagram (Figure), and a completed trial checklist (see CONSORT Flow Diagram and Checklist). All clinical trials must be registered at an appropriate online public registry (see Trial Registration requirements).
For additional guidance on preparing manuscripts reporting cluster trials, noninferiority and equivalence trials, and pragmatic trials, see Extensions of the CONSORT Statement. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a discussion section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions. A structured abstract is required, and trial registration information (name, number, and URL) must be listed at the end of the abstract; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts. Maximum length: 3000 words of text (not including abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material) with no more than a total of 5 tables and/or figures. The subtitle should include the phrase 「A Randomized Clinical Trial」 as relevant.
临床实验的摘要同上，文章最多不能超过3000字（不包括摘要、表格和参考文献，以及仅在线发表部分），表格和图不能超过5个。副标题应该包含「A Randomized Clinical Trial」样的表述。
These manuscripts are systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to clinical topics, emphasizing factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, or prevention. All articles or data sources should be searched for and selected systematically for inclusion and critically evaluated, and the search and selection process should be described in the manuscript. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes should be described for each article or data source. The data sources should be as current as possible, ideally with the search having been conducted within several months of manuscript submission. Authors of reports of meta-analyses of clinical trials should submit the PRISMA flow diagram and checklist. Authors of meta-analyses of observational studies should submit the MOOSE checklist. A structured abstract is required; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts. Maximum length: 3500 words of text (not including abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material), with no more than a total of 4 tables and/or figures and no more than 50-75 references. The subtitle should include the phrase 「A Meta-analysis」.
Caring for the Critically Ⅲ Patient
These manuscripts are original research reports, preferably clinical trials, or systematic reviews (see above classifications for manuscript submission requirements by category of article) that address virtually any aspect of critical illness, from prevention and triage, through resuscitation and acute treatment, to rehabilitation and palliative care. Manuscripts that provide new insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of critically ill patients, as well as those that explore pathophysiological, technological, ethical, or other related aspects of critical care medicine, are welcome. For reports of original data and systematic reviews, a structured abstract is required; see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts. Maximum length: 3000 words of text (not including abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material) with no more than a total of 5 tables and/or figures.
These manuscripts are short reports of original studies or evaluations or unique, first-time reports of clinical case series. Note: It is very rare for JAMA to publish case reports. A structured abstract is required; for more information, see instructions for preparing structured Abstracts. Recommended length: 1000-1500 words (not including abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material) with no more than a total of 3 tables and/or figures.
JAMA Clinical Challenge
A JAMA Clinical Challenge presents an actual patient scenario about a specific disease or condition with an accompanying clinical image. Authors should provide 4 single-sentence plausible treatment options describing possible courses of action with one of these being preferred for the question 「What would you do next?」 Manuscripts should include a brief discussion of the relevant clinical issues and provide well-supported explanations discussing the 4 potential courses of action. A key clinical feature should be definable, which drives the next course of action. All diagnostic and treatment recommendations should be supported by referencing authoritative texts or journal publications. Preferably, these recommendations should be supported by governmental or multisociety guidelines, meta-analyses, or systematic reviews. The text should have a maximum length of 850 words, consisting of no more than 250 words for the case presentation, question, and 4 one-sentence answers, followed by no more than 600 words that include the diagnosis and a brief discussion. There should be no more than 3 authors and no more than 10 references. In addition, the JAMA Patient Permission form must be completed by the patient and included at the time of manuscript submission. The image and case presentation should be from the same patient and must not have been published previously. In some cases, additional figures may be included to accompany the answer explanations. All images submitted should be high-quality .jpg or .tif files. Submit the original version of all image files at the highest resolution possible without labels. In general, the original image file should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi at a width of about 5 inches. Do not increase the original resolution, resize, or crop the image; where applicable, we will crop to maintain patient confidentiality. If any labels, arrowheads, or A/B panel indicators are desired, provide a separate labeled version of the figure(s) for reference. All labels will be reformatted in JAMA style.
For a recently published example, see JAMA. 2011;305(18):1911-1912. For more information on how to submit figures, see Guidelines for Figures in Accepted Manuscripts. Manuscripts not meeting these guidelines will not be considered.
这个类型的文章国人比较喜欢。作者在描述疾病完毕后，应该提供4个疑似诊断或者处理方法供读者选择，并以「What would you do next?」 打头。稿件还应该包括一个简短的讨论，以支持4个选择答案中为何要选正确的一个，而不选择其它疑似答案。但是所有的诊断和治疗方法应该有权威的教科学或者发表的文献支持，最好是政府发表的治疗指南或者Meta分析或者系统性评价文章。
These papers may address virtually any important topic in medicine, public health, research, ethics, health policy, or health law and generally are not linked to a specific article. Viewpoints should be well focused, scholarly, and clearly presented and must have no more than 3 authors. Maximum length: up to 1200 words of text-or 1000 words of text with 1 small table or figure-and no more than 7 references. Viewpoints not meeting these guidelines will not be considered.
A Piece of My Mind
Most essays published in A Piece of My Mind are personal vignettes (eg, exploring the dynamics of the patient-physician relationship) taken from wide-ranging experiences in medicine; occasional pieces express views and opinions on the myriad issues that affect the profession. If the patient(s) described in these manuscripts is identifiable, a Patient Permission form must be completed and signed by the patient(s) and submitted with the manuscript. Omitting data or making data less specific to deidentify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. Manuscripts are not published anonymously or pseudonymously. All manuscripts must be submitted formally at JAMA’s website; we do not review drafts or unfinished manuscripts prior to submission. Length limit: 1800 words.
Letter to the Editor
Letters discussing a recent JAMA article should be submitted within 4 weeks of the article’s publication in print.Letters received after 4 weeks will rarely be considered. Letters should not exceed 400 words of text and 5 references, 1 of which should be to the recent JAMA article. They should be double-spaced and a word count should be provided. Letters may have no more than 3 authors. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the e-mail address for the corresponding author. Letters must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication and should not include unpublished data. Letters not meeting these specifications are generally not considered. Letters being considered for publication ordinarily will be sent to the authors of the JAMA article, who will be given the opportunity to reply. Letters will be published at the discretion of the editors and are subject to abridgement and editing for style and content.
Letter in Reply
Replies by authors should not exceed 500 words of text and 6 references. They should have no more than 3 authors.
Research Letters reporting original research should not exceed 600 words of text and 6 references and may include up to 2 tables or figures. Online supplementary material is not allowed. Research letters may have no more than 7 authors. The text should include the full name, academic degrees, and a single institutional affiliation for each author and the e-mail address for the corresponding author. Other persons who have contributed to the study may be indicated in an Acknowledgment, with their permission, including their academic degrees, affiliation, contribution to the study, and an indication if compensation was received for their role. Letters must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication. In general, Research Letters should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Research Letters should be double-spaced and a word count should be provided with each letter. They should not include an abstract, but otherwise should follow all of the guidelines in Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements. Letters not meeting these specifications are generally not considered. Research Letters considered for publication undergo external peer review.
Note: JAMA publishes very few of these types of articles: ordinarily, fewer than 12 per year. These manuscripts describe an important issue in clinical medicine, public health, health policy, or medical research in a scholarly, thorough, well-referenced, systematic, and evidence-based manner. A narrative (unstructured) abstract of no more than 200 words is required. Maximum length: 3000 words of text (not including tables, figures, or references) with no more than a total of 4 tables and/or figures and no more than 50 references.
Poetry and Medicine
Poems related to the medical experience, whether from the point of view of a health care worker or patient, or simply an observer, will be considered. Poems should be original, not previously published or under consideration elsewhere, and no longer than 50 lines. Authors may submit multiple poems to JAMA simultaneously. Questions about submitting poems may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.